Simon Wiesenthal asks: was Columbus' heritage actually that of a Spanish Jew?

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Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
The three caravels of Cristobal Colon
the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria


Sails of Hope
The Secret Mission of Christopher Columbus
Simon Wiesenthal, "Sails of Hope: The Secret Mission of Christopher Columbus," Segel der Hoffnung - Die geheime Mission des Christoph Columbus [translated from German by Richard and Clara Winston, Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1973.] ISBN 9780026284004

Was Columbus a Crypto-Jew?


[From dust cover: Mr. Wiesenthal confirms what many scholars have long believed: Columbus was a converso--a baptized Jew whose career and very survival depended upon the total suppression of all evidence of his Jewish background. And, until now, the facts about his life were obscured by myth, rumor, and conflicting accounts; Spain, Portugal, and Italy still quarrel over his place of birth. His aristocratic bearing, extensive education, and multi-faceted talents belied the humble background he claimed. His sophisticated personal library reflected an uncom- monly broad knowledge of languages, history, geography, and the Bible, and his reading notes point to a surprising knowledge of Hebrew lore. Columbus was also an expert cartographer--at that time a profession practiced almost exclusively by Jews.]

Acrostic 'signature' of Don Cristobal Colon
(As a banner, the background is dark blue, lettering yellow)

S.A.S.
XMY
Xpo FERENS


Traditional Interpretation

Servidor
Sus Altezas Sacras
Jesus Maria Ysabel
Christo-pher       El Almirante


( Servant of )
( Their Sacred Highnesses )
( Jesus Mary and Isabella )
( Christopher )
( the Admiral )


But Wiesenthal says that XMY
represents
Xristophorus Marinus Yvica




Page 8-9 Researchers long ago discovered that the group of persons who supported Columbus's plans for a voyage of discovery consisted overwhelmingly of Jews and baptized Jews. There can be no doubt that without the aid of these persons, who helped persuade the royal couple to sponsor the expedition, who gave financial aid, and who provided nautical documents, Columbus's voyage would never have taken place.

p. 16 As long as the Moors dominated a large part of the Hispanic peninsula and were at war with the Spanish kingdoms, the Christian rulers were often dependent on the Jews living in their kingdoms. In spite of the Church's rulings, the kings had entrusted high positions to the Jews, especially in commerce and finance.

p. 28 On November 1, 1478, Pope Sixtus IV issued a bull empowering Fernando y Ysabel (Ferdinand and Isabella) to introduce the Inquisition into the kingdoms of Castile and Aragón. The conduct of the religious tribunal was to be in the hands of three bishops, and the Crown was assured a significant part in the proceedings.

Until this point Aragón had been something of a haven for Marranos and Jews. Ferdinand's father, King Juan of Aragón, had been well-disposed to this group of his subjects. He was even connected to them by marriage--his second wife, Ferdinand's mother, was the grand-daughter of the beautiful Jewess Paloma of Toledo.

p. 29 [Author tells the story of how when Ferdinand asked for the hand of Isabella in marriage, it was the wealthy Marranos of both kingdoms who came to his rescue when he found the treasure bare. They provided 40,000 ducats for the purchase of a necklace as a wedding gift.]

p. 31 Whatever gratitude [Ferdinand] may have felt was transformed into an inferiority complex toward Marranos. Their very existence reminded him of his former poverty, and this was unendurable.

Ferdinand's attitude was an example of the ingratitude accorded to Jews throughout history. But it was also the result of miscalculation on their part; they had placed their hopes in an impoverished prince and helped him to power. Ferdinand evidently felt their aid as a humiliation; he rewarded his benefactors with expulsion and death.

p. 35-36 Under the spur of the Inquisition, Spain began instituting "pure blood" laws. Those of "pure blood" constituted a kind of master race, destined to rule all those who could not demonstrate such lineage. Foreign blood was "mala sangre," bad blood, and those with the misfortune to have this were consigned to a lower caste in society...Pure Spaniards, those beyond suspicion, had to have an exemplary "limpieza de sangre" to the seventh generation.

p. 48
[When persecutions began in Spain, delegations of Jews appealed to the Pope, who condemned the inherent racism.] But the pope was a distant voice, while the voice of the Spanish Church and its newly founded Inquisition was very near. It was the common root of Judaism and Christianity that led to the hostility between the two religions. Most popes respected this common root; many issued statements stressing the brotherhood of the Jews and testifying to the universality of the Church ... From time to time the popes proved their tolerance by issuing bulls for the protection of the Jews.

p. 52 ...Old Jewish dreams and longings for a land where they could live unmolested began to reawaken [with the excitement of the Age of Discovery]. There longings had accompanied the Jews on their wanderings ever since they had been driven from their homeland.

The last feverish decades of the fifteenth century were marked by another fever: that of exploration. Men were emboldened to set out on voyages that had hitherto been inconceivable. What laid the basis for such exploits was progress in shipbuilding and in the art of navigation. Nautical instruments, maps, and marine charts revolutionized seafaring. And remarkably enough, the Spanish Jews were prominent in this field.

Cartography had long been a concern of the Jews on the Iberian peninsula. Learned Jews presided over a number of schools of cartography whose contributions vastly enlarged the boundaries of the known world. The Spaniards and Portuguese would refer to such specialists as "map Jews" or "compass Jews," and the products of their skill and knowledge were highly esteemed throughout Europe and in great demand among sea captains.

p. 54 As I began to look for some material about the thirteenth-century cartographers, I recalled a Jewish joke dating from 1938. After Hitler's invasion of Austria a Jew goes to a travel bureau in Vienna and inquires about the possibilities for emigration. The clerk has a globe in front of her and runs her fingers from country to country, saying, "Emigration to Palestine is blocked. American quota is already filled. Visa for England, very tough. China, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil want financial guarantees. Poland will not permit even Polish Jews to reenter." When she had completed the circuit of the globe with her finger, she concluded, "I guess that's all." Resignedly, the Jew gestures toward the globe and asks, "Is this the only one you've got?"

How often in Jewish history must Jews have stood over a map or before a globe and asked the same question as the man in the anecdote?

Almost every adventure in the history of mankind began with the study of some kind of map. To know that there is more of the world to range through is always an exhilarating experience. How much more so for those who were confined to the narrow lanes of the Juderias. Their imaginations people the unexplored regions; their hearts yearned for some land where they could live in peace and freedom.

By the fifteenth century it was well known in Spain that the earth was a sphere (although not everyone was willing to believe this) and that there were sill many unknown regions upon its surface. For the persecuted these unknown lands were rich in promise.

p. 64 The letters that Prester John supposedly addressed in the 12th century to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III could be regarded as a kind of counter-propaganda to the tales of the Danite. Their burden was to prove that the Jews were rulers nowhere, that there was always a Christian superior over them

p. 93 Who was the man who gave so sharp a spur to the hopes of the Jews and Marranos? Hundreds of books have been written about him. His name is one of the best known in history. Yet he is one of history's most controversial and shadowy figures. with mystery surrounding his birth, his character, his career, and his achievement...

Any investigation of the life of Columbus leads by a direct path to the plight of the Jews in Spain at that time. His story appears to be intertwined with theirs, and this would be the case whether Columbus was himself a Jew, a Marrano, or not of Jewish descent at all. His plans, however, were of utmost significance to the Jews, and Jews played a great part in his venture.

p. 98 The documents relating to Columbus seem to have undergone more than the usual vicissitudes of family papers. Only a portion of the relevant records has been preserved. That is scarcely to be wondered at, since in the course of time these papers passed through many hands and traveled from continent to continent.

pp. 99-100 In 1791, a Spanish naval officer named Navarrete discovered in the archives of the Monastery of San Esteban and among the papers of the Duke of Veragua, a descendant of Columbus, a cache of letters and reports written by Columbus himself. These are almost certainly authentic and of the greatest interest... Columbus's journal has not been preserved in the original...there is...no authentic portrait of the discoverer ...[and there are] mysteries surrounding the origins of the great discoverer. Many contradictions were sown by Columbus himself and by his family...

p. 100 If we put together everything that has previously been published on Columbus's descent, we are confronted with an absolute puzzle. Some of the stories are deliberately misleading, as though there had been many efforts to obscure Columbus's descent and to lure investigators onto false trails. Columbus himself may have wanted to keep the world, and to some extent his family, more or less in the dark. If so, he succeeded. We may well ask ourselves why Columbus said so little about his ancestry.

p. 101-05 ...around the age of 25 [Columbus] turned up in Lisbon. The question of how he got there has by no means been settled. He himself told an elaborate story, a typical adventure yarn of the period. [He had been shipwrecked on the coast of Portugal].

[How he learned Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, Genoese, perhaps Italian and even Hebrew has scholars mystified. A son of lower middle class weavers generally do not send their sons to universities unless then study for the priesthood or unless they have the kind of money it takes to pay for private tutors.] [At 18 Cristoforo Colombo gave as his occupation "weaver" in Genoa; at age 25 he was a cartographer in Lisbon. And what about the extensive knowledge of nautical matter?]. [At another point he says that he went to sea at the age of 14. But really, "the life of a cabin boy at that period was certainly not calculated to provide an education in languages and the sciences"] [And an even greater mystery is how was it that Columbus was able to marry a Portuguese noble woman, far above his station in society?] Several times in his writings he refers to Castilian as his mother tongue. But there is a tradition that on the voyages whenever Columbus was dissatisfied with the work of his crews and flew into a fury, he reviled the men in Italian and used Italian oaths...[yet others claim] that he spoke Castilian very well but with a Portuguese accent.

"Don't believe the person who says he knows all about Columbus!"

p. 106 The marginal notes in his books make it plain that Columbus was well acquainted with the Old Testament; he cited the Prophets and was privy to information belonging to the intellectual world of Judaism. How did he come by such knowledge? In one of the volumes that he pored over more than others--"Historia rerum ubique gestarum" written by Pope Pius II--there is startling evidence that he was familiar with Jewish chronology. He dates a marginal note with the year 1481 and promptly gives the Jewish equivalent, the year 5241. [In truth, nobody knows where his learning may have been acquired.]

p. 120 A good many scholars have been struck by the way Columbus seems to have belabored his religion. In this respect his behavior was like that of the Marranos of the period. They, too, had to publicly display their Christian faith at every possible opportunity. Was Columbus trying just a bit too hard to act, sound, appear "like a Christian" through studied words and actions?
See The 'CHRISTIAN' Columbus


Page 122-123 That religious elements played a great part in Columbus's thoughts and actions is evident from all his writings. It may come as something of a surprise to us that his concept of sailing west to reach the Indies was less the result of geographical theories than of his faith in certain Biblical texts -- specifically the Book of Isaiah. He repeatedly cited two verses from that book: "Surely the isles shall wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them," (60:9); and "For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth" (65:17). He felt that his voyages had confirmed these prophecies.

Isaiah seems to have been his favorite book of the Bible. He was also apt to quote from the Book of Ezra. In general he demonstrated a sound knowledge of the Old Testament. This might have been true of any cultivated man of the age. But what are we to make of the presence in the Admiral's library of such items as the Jewish War, the account of the downfall of the ancient Jewish state by Josephus Flavius, or the De Nativitatibus by the Jewish scholar Abraham ibn Ezra. Then again, he would seem to have pored over another book on the Messiah by a Jewish renegade, the former Rabbi Samuel ibn Abbas of Morocco, from which work he even copied out several chapters, the better to master them.

p. 147 The occupation that Columbus pursued during his stay in Portugal was also in those days totally "judaized." He was a cartographer and calligrapher; he drew maps and also dealt in printed books. This is why some Spanish scholars assert that he must have been born on the island of Majorca--all the more so since there ia a village called Genova on the island ... Majorca was the center of cartography and cosmography, and the science was mostly practiced by Jews; only occasionally was a Moorish or Christian practitioner to be found.

p. 163-64 For Columbus the fall of Granada was the signal to begin intensifying his efforts at court...Embittered by his long period of waiting and filled with a sense of the importance of his mission, Columbus made unusual demands, which the royal pair refused to meet. He wanted nothing less than hereditary viceroy- ship, the title of Grand Admiral of the Ocean Sea, and a share in whatever treasures were found. The negotiations were on the point of breaking down or, as some think, had been broken off and were not going to be resumed. At this point four men of Jewish descent intervened: Juan Cabrero, Luis de Santangel, Gabriel Sanchez, and Alfonso de la Caballeria...The queen's principal objection was that the country had been so impoverished by the war against the Moors that it was in no position to bear the costs of the expedition. The Treasury was empty. At this point Santangel leaped into breach. Probably after consulting with [the other three], he offered to put up the money for the expedi- tion. This was the crucial point; but for Santangel's offer, Columbus's voyage would not have taken place simply for the lack of funds.

p. 165 Whenever King Ferdinand needed money he appealed to the Santangels in Valencia, and never in vain.

p. p. 167 [Some of the Jews were so desperately needed by the royal couple that] ...on May 30, 1497, Ferdinand and Isabella handed to Luis de Santangel a special charter protecting both him and his descendants for all time from being summoned by the tribunal of the Inquisition. The certificate stated that they could never be required to appear before such a tribunal. Santangel and his descendants, despite that fact that they descended from Jews, were accorded a kind of honorary "Aryan" status; their charter was a special "limpieza de sangre" of the kind that, as we have see, was so important in Spain.

p. 170 During this period, when the Inquisition was most virulent and when victims of the tribunal were being burned in the squares of Spanish cities, one would think that people of Jewish descent had other matters to attend to than to lend aid to a foreigner who had come to Castile with some hare-brained notion of touring the Indies. The experts had pronounced the man's plans to be too risky or even basically unsound. Yet those very Jews and Christianized descendants of Jews, who were reputed to be so astute, put themselves behind a man whom the king's scientific advisory council had rejected. Why were they doing so?...Here is a matter involving seafaring and unknown lands about which they knew nothing. Nor was it in their character to give a loan, and not a small one, on no security.

pp 170-71 Salvador de Madariaga argues that Columbus was himself a Converso and thus received support from his co-religionists in high places...Since they were descended from Jews, they were threatened just as were the Jews themselves; it was only a question of time and men like Luis Santangel...knew it. That was why they were ready to throw their weight behind the expedition. They would have aided any such venture, even if Columbus had not been a Converso -- though his being one would surely have strengthened the trust between them.

p. 172-74 Why did Columbus take an interpreter for Hebrew with him? Hebrew was not the language of any country in the known world. The only possible explanation must be that Columbus expected to be reaching countries in which Jews lived and governed...We do know, however, that Columbus sent Luis de Torres ...on shore to communicate with the natives. And so we can conclude that after the landfall in America the first words addressed to the natives were words of Hebrew.

p. 184 The Spanish Jews had already shown their tendency to be incorrigible optimists. That tendency was to prove fatal for the Jews of Europe 450 years later. They constantly believed that things were not so bad as they appeared. They did not understand the extent of the hatred that was naturally or artificially built up around them or that they themselves produced. They denied its existence because it was incompatible with their innate optimism, which for centuries had formed the basis for the survival of Jewry. And so the Jews of Spain were taken by surprise--in part, also, because although they had studied the history of the people they lived among they did not know enough about their own history. Or even when they did know it, they shrank from drawing the necessary conclusions from it.

p. 179 The Bitter End
[Wiesenthal unfolds a panorama of turbulent Spain [with] the unparalleled religious fanatacism of the Inquisition. He vividly describes the Inquisition's cruel victimization of Spain's Sephardi Jews -- the forced baptisms; pure-blood laws; arbitrary tortures and liquidation; confiscation of property; and the final, irreversible decree of expulsion, which coincided precisedly (August 2, 1492) with Columbus's momentous voyage of discovery. -- from dust cover]

pp 184-85 The Jews who were forced to leave Spain began making their preparations for departure at the same time as Columbus. Since the regulations allowed the Jews to take only hand baggage, they had to sell their property at sacrifice prices. The value of Jewish possessions dropped from day to day. For houses, vineyards, and orchards they received only a few gold pieces, which they could use only to buy necessities for the journey, since the edict of expulsion also forbade the export of gold and coined gold. In addition, a tea had been imposed on them without the slightest pretense of justice. Similar to what was to happen centuries later in Germany and Austria, Spain's Jews had to pay an emigration fee...A person could leave the country only if he had paid these taxes. But he also could not stay after the deadline. All in all , the Jews had been allowed a period of ninety days in which to settle their affairs. It was impossible for anyone to sell his property at a decent price within so short a time. The neighbors waited greedily to fall upon the estate that generations of Jews had worked to accumulate. And these same neighbors felt generous for paying anything at all.

p. 190 The chances of getting away alive diminished from day to day. The undecided Jews postponed departure in the hope that powerful Marranos would put in a good word for them with the Queen. But most Jews knew that the Marranos themselves were being pressed and that at this of all times they had to deny any connections with Jewry...Missionaries sought out the irresolute among the despairing Jews and offered those who could not bring themselves to leave Spanish soil the salvation of baptism. Most Jews knew that this would be only a respite. The sad fate of the Marranos, which they could see all around them, made it easier for them to say no to the priest. Only a few accepted the Church's offer at the last moment. Mostly, the Jews seemed to be waiting for a miracle. Frightening reports turned the tormenting uncertainty into panic. One more town had been "cleared" of Jews; once again departing Jews had been attacked by bandits, robbed of their remaining possessions, beaten and killed. Then came stories that Portugal had closed her borders and was no longer willing to receive wealthy Jews. Word came that the prices for passage aboard ships had doubled.

pp. 192-93 As we know, Columbus did not discover the way to India, although after his landing he was convinced that he had done so and remained so convinced to the end of his life. The natives addressed in Hebrew had not understood the language. The dream of the Jews and Conversos, that Columbus would show them the way to the ten tribes of Israel, was not fulfilled.

All Spain rejoiced when word came of the success of the voyage. The king and queen were grateful to Santangel for his intervention and for having made the expedition possible by his generous loan. The prospect of a great Spanish empire loomed. Years later, Santangel was paid back the entire sum that he had advanced for the voyage. But how was the financing of the other expeditions arranged?

The Jews expelled from Spain "for the honor and glory of the Lord" had left behind money and its equivalent, all kinds of property and accounts receivable. By a royal edict of November 23, 1492, Ferdinand ordered all the property of the Jews, including such goods as Christians had illegally taken from Jews, to be confiscated for the treasury and sold.

On May 23, 1493, the royal couple authorized Columbus, now governor of the newly discovered islands, and Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, archdeacon of Seville, to go to Seville and Cadiz to obtain the vessels, crews, and supplies necessary for a second expedition. On the same day Ferdinand and Isabella signed a large number of decrees addressed to royal officials in Soria, Zamora, Burgos, and many other cities. The officials were instructed to confiscate the money, jewelry, and other valuable that the Jews expelled from Spain had given into the keeping of their Marrano friends and relatives, and also Jewish property that had been "found" by Christians or otherwise illegally acquired. All such booty was to be turned over to the treasurer in Seville...to be used to pay the cost of equipping Columbus's second expedition.

p. 197 One hundred twenty thousand of the Jews expelled from Spain found refuge in neighboring Portugal. A sum of eight ducats per head had to be paid for the privilege of stopping there. The overwhelming majority of the immigrants held together with unflinching allegiance. The wealthy paid for the poor, and so all were admitted. The huge sum of money the Portuguese Crown received was employed to equip ships for the voyages of discovery, to the Cape of Good Hope and to Brazil.

p. 204 The great pogrom of 1391 had resulted in decimation of the Jewish quarter of Seville. Some of the surviving Jews emigrated, and the number of converts increased. After many Italians, especially Genoese, had immigrated into Seville, the Jewish quarter became an Italian quarter. Many wealthy Conversos lived on the Calle de Genova. Seville was already an ethnically mixed and cosmopolitan city in the fifteenth century. Historians have taken too little account of this fact in their search for Columbus's line of descent. When the remaining Jews were banished and an economic vacuum ensued, more Italian merchants filled the vacuum. They were mostly Genoese, who unlike the Spaniards, did not despise commerce.

p. 207 ...with or without permission, hordes of Marranos left Spain for the overseas colonies in the course of the sixteenth century. After the flight had reached massive proportions, the authorities realized that the refugees had been equipped with false "limpiezas de sangre" that were confirmed by false witnesses, or else they had bought their licenses for departure.

p. 213 ...the Spanish conquistadores and their troops...regarded the Indians as subhumans upon whom they were conferring a blessing by converting them to Christianity. If they proved refractory they were slaughtered. The Indians were regarded as having no property rights at all; their land, their possessions, and their women belonged to the Spanish conquerors.

Page 227 Thanks to Columbus, Spain had acquired an empire whose vastness and wealth surpassed all previous conceptions. With such possessions Spain should have enjoyed centuries of prosperity, with her entire population sharing in the general welfare. Instead the Spanish economy stagnated. Her institution rigidified, crushing all enterprise. Her rule of injustice produced a climate of fear, envy, and grinding oppression. The double motives of religious fanaticism and greed continued to hold sway.

p. 228 All told, Spain had lost one and one-half million people. Many occupations were virtually abandoned. Trade, the crafts, and the sciences languished.

Simon Dubnow comments: " ... The flourishing land of the Arabic-Jewish renaissance was transformed into a lifeless desert of monks."
millersville.edu

See Carla Rahn Phillips (Seis Galeones Para el Rey de España )

An Ashkenazi Jewish tradition speaks of the Lost Tribes as Die Roite Yiddelech, "The little red Jews", cut off from the rest of Jewry by the legendary river Sambation "whose foaming waters raise high up into the sky a wall of fire and smoke that is impossible to pass through."


The story of how Queen Isabella sold her jewels in order to buy the three ships for Columbus breaks down under some cool historical research. It was not Queen Isabella's jewels, but Queen Isabella's Jews who purchased the three ships for Columbus. History shows that two Jewish banking families bought the ships. Many of the men on the three vessels were Jews fleeing Spain as a result of the Edict of Expulsion. According to Columbus's own diary, the first one to spot land was a Jew sitting in the crow's nest. Also, according to his diary, the first one off his ship was his interpreter, Luis de Tores, a Spanish Jew. [Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum. Jewish Christianity]


Also recommended:
Hebraic influence on early New England

The splendour of Old Spain: lingering influences

Intriguing artifacts suggesting Old World origin have been found at various archeological sites in the two American continents. See theseason.org. One such site was Sanilac Michigan. It would appear that pre-Columbian Hebrews were here. There are petroglyphs of enigmatic significance, one of which is an eerily accurate pictograph of a Jewish Menorah. See Saginaw Chippewa site.

Libros de las profecías de Cristóbal Colón The Book of Prophecies. Edited by Christopher Columbus (English edition. Ruberto Rusconi, Blair Sullivan), HC (Repertorium Columbianum, V. 3) , Un. Calif. Press, 1997.

While there was incontrovertable proof of Jewish influence that surrounded Colon's life, a conclusive verdict that he was Jewish origin himself eludes us, despite Salvador Madariaga's persuasive book "Cristobal Colon" ( See overview).

Luis de Torres, Columbus' translator and interoretor, was of Converso heritage. He was the first member of Columbus crew to set foot in the new world, and the first to greet the Indians. But what did he say? Wiesenthal wonders if the first words addressed to the natives were in Hebrew. It is suggested that Luis de Torres' Hebrew name (which he was given at birth) was
"Yosef ben ha-Levy ha-Ivri"
יוסף בן הלוי העברי


Discussion of the Sails of Hope thesis

Discussion thread (on "phora" blog)

Cristóbal Colón y los Heterodoxos Españoles


El nombre de este navegante puede traducirse como Cristóbal: el que lleva a Cristo, Colón: Espíritu Santo o paloma, de ahí que en la firma de Colón anterior a 1492 se lee Xpo ferens ("portador de Cristo"), que podría hacer referencia a la Orden de Cristo, a la que el pudo haber pertenecido.

Cristoforo Colombo, L'ultimo dei Templari - La storia tradita e i veri retroscena della scoperta dell'America. (Ruggero Marino). Christopher Columbus, the Last Templar. This book will amaze you. Columbus knew far more than history lets on (thanks to insider cover-up). Columbus shared the Templar dream of Christians, Muslims, and Jews living in peace in a New Jerusalem. According to investigations by Ruggero Marino, Columbus studied ancient texts and maps from the Vatican Library, access to which was granted by Pope Innocent VIII -- who Marino shows to be Columbus' true father. Innocent VIII (whose own father was Jewish and grandmother was Muslim) was the perfect individual to further the Templars' plan to create a universal religion combining the spiritual wisdom of the three great monotheistic faiths -- the three Abrahamic-inspired "peoples of the Book."

Martha Nussbaum relates in her book Liberty of Conscience how even Roger Williams admired the character of the Indians he knew, never tried to convert them, and had been deeply impressed by the views of the Portuguese-Dutch Jewish sage Menasseh ben Israel -- the same man who influenced Cromwell to readmit Jews to England -- that the American Indians were the lost tribes of Israel. [p47]

Arnold Fruchtenbaum writes: "When Columbus set sail for America, there were many Jews on his ships, and among them some Hebrew Christians [conversos]. During the period of Spanish supremacy, a number of the wealthy and influential families were Hebrew Christians [conversos], such as the Carthagenas family of Spain and the Pierleonas family of Italy." [p47]. Two sites which may interest the reader are: Christ Bearer (what's in a name). That is, Columbus' Christian character and his divine mission (by Stephen McDowell). A related site is, Columbus Came ~ in Jesus Name - Jesus and America's Founding (our beautiful rainbow heritage).


Inquisición española y Tomás de Torquemada

Lost Tribes and Promised Lands:

Ronald Sanders lays out some astounding evidence indicating that Michel de Montaigne may well have been of Jewish heritage himself, and personally a descendent of Spain's "New Christians." Sanders thus is not surprised by Montaigne's pro-Indian humanism. "Although his father was of old French aristocratic stock, Montaigne's mother, Antoinette de Loupes, was the daughter of a family of Sephardic refugees whose name had been López. The Bordeaux region, in which Montaigne was born in 1533 and which remained his home throughout his life, had in fact long been a principal refuge for Spanish New Christians, and though the open practice of Judaism was no more legal on French than on Spanish soil, the secret practice of it was considerable easier there. Not that there is a whiff of secret Judaism in Montaigne's family that we know of, but there were on the other hand distinct Protestant tendencies among them, and though the great essayist did not openly throw in his lot with the Huguenots, as two of his brothers did, he nevertheless was sympathetic to their cause. In general, the religious and cultural variety of Bordeaux in that day must have been very influential in the formation of Montaigne's skeptical and cosmopolitan spirit, for which established creeds were merely overly constricting containers imposed upon inner human freedom; and so also were the established cultures that so righteously and unthinkingly sought to inflict themselves upon the ways of life of other men.

[p208. Lost Tribes and Promised Lands]
Why are the native Americans so much like the Hebrews?
Eliyahu Rips' encrypted "holy math" - hidden Torah Code
Defend Christopher Columbus (and save Western Civilization)

צליבה


cruci dum spiro fido
libera me domine
cross icon thanx
to libchrist.com



Martin Luther King began one of his sermons proclaiming:
"Every time I look at the cross I am reminded of the greatness of God and the redemptive power of Jesus Christ. I am reminded of the beauty of sacrificial love and the majesty of unswerving devotion to truth. It causes me to say with John Bowring:
In the cross of Christ I glory,
Towering o'er the wrecks of time;
All the light of sacred story
Gathers round its head sublime.
[FROM A SERMON BY Martin Luther King, Jr .... Quoted in Strength to Love]

One Solitary Life
The Incomparable Christ


Have we made an idol out of the cross?

Islam has warned the west of God's disapproval of some of our laxness, tendency toward materialist excess, gluttony (swine-like) and our idolatry of objects. Jesus says to worship God only. An ancient record revealed within Islam, Jesus says He will come to punish the Christians who do such things, destroy the false idols, including the crosses they worship.

And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.

(Is this a true revelation? As a Christian, I do not know. My Christian devotion makes me agree with Martin, but what if the warning is true? God give us ears to hear his Word (even if from other sources).




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Robert Shepherd
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